Chiptuning Alfa/Fiat/LanciaWhat is actually chiptuning? It is the modification of software in the engine control unit. Object routine of this modification is to increase the engine power, that sort of tune = tuning. Very first drive units used to run on integrated circuits (chips), that could not reprogram sc. EPROM memory. In order to modify the software, it was necessary to purchase the same type of device, to burn a new software into it by programmer and then to solder the original chip of the unit out and solder a new one in. Thats why the name chiptuning. At the new units we can find electrically erasable memories, and most of them can be reprogrammed via the diagnostic socket (OBD), so there is no need to solder anything or remove a control unit (ECU = electronic control unit) from the vehicle.
Reprogramming the engine is essentially a change of values in the tables, resp. in the maps. Than its possible to get into the engine more air and fuel, causing a better performance.
By the simplest units EDC15C2 E2 it is necessary to modify these maps: the desired fuel amount, the fuel limiter, smoke limiter, fuel pressure, fuel pressure limiters, Pre-injection, torque limiter, temperature limiter, maps for EGR valve and a few single value limiters (SVL). Together 19 maps should be adjusted (including SVLs). Maps of turbo are included, but not active. ECU has a power components to control pressure turbo. It is controlled by a mechanical pressure control valve. Editing software to be meaningful, it is necessary to make a mechanical adjustment of the turbo pressure. The JTD 77kW and 96kW (marea 2.4) is the solution to inlay overflow valve what delayed intervention control (pictured), with 100 kW JTD, boost pressure can be increased by reducing the VGT control rod about 0.5 cm. The control rod is threaded - this is the only engine with variable turbo, which is controlled by pressure without affecting ECU.
This is an external boost controller.
The units EDC15C7 E3 - 81kW engines (marea, alpha), 85kW, 103kW and 110kW (2.4 10V) there is also necessary to adjust the turbo pressure, turbo limiters, SVL for turbo, VGT duty cycle solenoid overboost. In addition, its necessary to adjust the speed of rail pressure rising, to avoid a car falling into Safe Mode, during acceleration. A total of 25 maps. By the EDC16 units there should be edited: in addition to the previous units, CR pump limiters, temperature fuel limiters , intake air, limiter for overheating, smoke limiters depending on the richness of the mixture, follow-up limiters and SVLs for fuel pressure and turbo pressure. For vehicles with a DPF is necessary to extend the range maps for the regeneration of the filter. Overall, at least 34 maps.
For all units, you will notice that there is no adjusting of injection duration. It is absolutely essential information. Map of the injection duration is calculated precisely to give the engine ECU exactly as much fuel as is needed. Therefore, the intervention in this maps is highly amateur.
This is duration map. All numbers are white, so no change was made.
But the extension of the duration map proportion for the higher doses is allowed. The change of the initial dose may not be occured. It is not possible to lift the percentage parameters to say that the software is done well,. Modifications of the type of fuel +20% air+20% although can be master-sensational, but are far from accurate. By the gasoline engine a variation from the poor mix can be the way to destruction. It is necessary to be very very very very careful to work with AFR by the turbocharged petrol engines! Generally, for each engine at each value of fuel is necessary to measure how much air the engine is able to absorb, what is the temperature and in accordance with a compressor maps for a given turbulence write the value to be stoichiometric combustion. For each value to be calculated Pre-injection (or pre-ignition) to within one tenth of microseconds. If the Pre-injection set by the estimate earlier – to avoid smoking, all right, but too early Pre-injection reduces the power increase , late one exceeds smoke emission. Much air causis the decrease of performance, low air temperature rise. The wrong pre-ignition time by the petrol engine causes a significant decrease in performance and an increase in consumption, a poor mix means blown pistons, rich - destroyed catalyst and high consumption. Etc. etc. Therefore, all parameters must be calculated. Such calculations must be verified by the measurements in practice and re-corrected. For measurements can be used quality diagnosis, for example MultiEcuScan for italian cars. So definitely a good debugging software takes years and can not be debugged for 2h. Ideally, choose for a modification a person who owns such a car, or who owned it in the past and has developed really good software by his vehicle.